International Court of Justice is the primary judicial arm of the United Nations. The court is located in the Peace Palace, in the Hague, Netherlands. A number of responsibilities are entrusted to the court. First and foremost, the court helps to settle disputes between member nations of the United Nations. Plus, the court issues advisory opinions to various branches and agencies of the United Nations. There are 15 judges on the court panel, and each is appointed for a term of nine years. The court also hires lawyers, clerical and administrative workers to perform its daily tasks.
International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991 also known as the ICTY was established by the United Nations to hear cases related to the war crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars that were fought from 1991 to 2001. There are 16 permanent judges on the court. Since the establishment of the justice body, the court has indicted more than 161 people. The final trial of the ICTY was completed on November 22, 2017, and the last appeals were processed by the court on November 29, 2017.
Court of Justice of the European Union or the CJEU is a judiciary body that is based in the Kirchberg district of Luxembourg City, Luxembourg. The purpose of the court is to oversee disputes that arise from European Union law. As a result, the court is responsible for applying and interpreting the law. The court currently has 47 judges, and the number is expected to increase to 56 in 2019. Members of the court review the legal basis for actions taken by institutions of the European Union and ensure that all EU members comply with the terms of treaties.
The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, also known as the ECCC or the Khmer Rouge Tribunal, is an international court established in 1997. Based in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, the purpose of the tribunal is to indict, try and convict the members of the Khmer Rouge Cambodian government for violations of international law and war crimes. The court is broken into a pre-trial chamber, a trial chamber and a supreme court chamber, each of which has seven to nine judges on the bench. In addition, the tribunal staffs a number of offices, including the Office of the Co-Prosecutors, the Office of Co-Investigating Judges, the Office of Administration, the Defense Support Section and the Victims Support Section.
International Criminal Court is an international tribunal based in the Hague, the Netherlands. The purpose of the court is to serve as a supplement to national courts of law to handle situations that cannot be resolved through traditional means by nations. Typically, cases are either referred to the court directly by countries or by the United Nations. Currently, there are 123 countries that are members of the International Criminal Court as outlined by the Rome Statue adopted on July 17, 1998. The court primarily hears cases related to genocide, crimes against humanity, crimes of aggression, war crimes and territorial disputes.
The International Bar Association or IBA is an association of lawyers, bar associations and law organizations located across the world. Currently, more than 80,000 lawyers belong to the IBA, as well as 200 bar associations and legal societies. The official headquarters for the IBA is in London, United Kingdom. Regional offices are found in Washington, D.C., United States; Sao Paolo, Brazil; and Seoul, South Korea. Two organizations, the Bar Issues Commission (BIC) and the Human Rights Institute (IBAHRI), operate under the IBA. The latter was founded by Nelson Mandel and seeks to enforce laws that protect human rights.
The International Center for Transitional Justice or ICTJ is a nonprofit non-governmental organization founded in 2001. The purpose of the group is to fight for accountability for gross violations of human rights using transitional justice apparatuses. Currently, the group has its headquarters in New York City, New York, United States. The organization operates worldwide and has regional offices located in 12 different countries. Since the founding of the organization, the ICTJ has worked in more than 40 countries, including Tunisia, Uganda, Colombia and Syria to further the rule of law, women’s and children’s rights, religious freedom and equality.
The International Council of Jurists is a professional association based in Buckingham Palace in London, the United Kingdom. The purpose of the organization is to promote the administration of justice and the expansion of law to meet the social and economic needs of people all around the world. To achieve these goals, the council supports research projects and provides educational seminars and symposia for lawyers and legal workers around the world. Plus, the organization offers legal aid to people who are unable to afford attorneys. Members of the association include individual lawyers, bar associations and legal societies.
The United Nations Office of Legal Affairs is a branch of the United Nations founded February 13, 1946. Operating out of their headquarters in New York City, New York, United States, the office is responsible for providing legal services for the Secretariat of the United Nations and other organs of the UN. Specifically, the office interprets and advises on issues related to international trade law and public law. There are six divisions of the Office of Legal Affairs: the Office of the Legal Counsel (OLC), the General Legal Division (GLD), the Codification Division (COD), the Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea (DOALOS), the International Trade Law Division (ITLD) and the Treaty Section (TREATY).
Avocats Sans Frontières is an international non-governmental organization committed to protecting human rights and promoting responsible development. The organization is headquartered in Brussels, Belgium, and was founded in 1992. More than 130 people work for the organization worldwide. The group conducts field interventions on the ground in areas of conflict and other violations of human rights. In addition, the organization provides access to lawyers, legal advice and justice representation for victims of human rights violations that would otherwise not be able to secure a lawyer. The organization has done work in Burundi, Kosovo, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Timor-Leste, Uganda and Nepal.