International Court of Justice is the primary judicial arm of the United Nations. The court is located in the Peace Palace, in the Hague, Netherlands. A number of responsibilities are entrusted to the court. First and foremost, the court helps to settle disputes between member nations of the United Nations. Plus, the court issues advisory opinions to various branches and agencies of the United Nations. There are 15 judges on the court panel, and each is appointed for a term of nine years. The court also hires lawyers, clerical and administrative workers to perform its daily tasks.
International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991 also known as the ICTY was established by the United Nations to hear cases related to the war crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars that were fought from 1991 to 2001. There are 16 permanent judges on the court. Since the establishment of the justice body, the court has indicted more than 161 people. The final trial of the ICTY was completed on November 22, 2017, and the last appeals were processed by the court on November 29, 2017.
Court of Justice of the European Union or the CJEU is a judiciary body that is based in the Kirchberg district of Luxembourg City, Luxembourg. The purpose of the court is to oversee disputes that arise from European Union law. As a result, the court is responsible for applying and interpreting the law. The court currently has 47 judges, and the number is expected to increase to 56 in 2019. Members of the court review the legal basis for actions taken by institutions of the European Union and ensure that all EU members comply with the terms of treaties.
The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, also known as the ECCC or the Khmer Rouge Tribunal, is an international court established in 1997. Based in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, the purpose of the tribunal is to indict, try and convict the members of the Khmer Rouge Cambodian government for violations of international law and war crimes. The court is broken into a pre-trial chamber, a trial chamber and a supreme court chamber, each of which has seven to nine judges on the bench. In addition, the tribunal staffs a number of offices, including the Office of the Co-Prosecutors, the Office of Co-Investigating Judges, the Office of Administration, the Defense Support Section and the Victims Support Section.
International Criminal Court is an international tribunal based in the Hague, the Netherlands. The purpose of the court is to serve as a supplement to national courts of law to handle situations that cannot be resolved through traditional means by nations. Typically, cases are either referred to the court directly by countries or by the United Nations. Currently, there are 123 countries that are members of the International Criminal Court as outlined by the Rome Statue adopted on July 17, 1998. The court primarily hears cases related to genocide, crimes against humanity, crimes of aggression, war crimes and territorial disputes.
The International Bar Association or IBA is an association of lawyers, bar associations and law organizations located across the world. Currently, more than 80,000 lawyers belong to the IBA, as well as 200 bar associations and legal societies. The official headquarters for the IBA is in London, United Kingdom. Regional offices are found in Washington, D.C., United States; Sao Paolo, Brazil; and Seoul, South Korea. Two organizations, the Bar Issues Commission (BIC) and the Human Rights Institute (IBAHRI), operate under the IBA. The latter was founded by Nelson Mandel and seeks to enforce laws that protect human rights.
The International Center for Transitional Justice or ICTJ is a nonprofit non-governmental organization founded in 2001. The purpose of the group is to fight for accountability for gross violations of human rights using transitional justice apparatuses. Currently, the group has its headquarters in New York City, New York, United States. The organization operates worldwide and has regional offices located in 12 different countries. Since the founding of the organization, the ICTJ has worked in more than 40 countries, including Tunisia, Uganda, Colombia and Syria to further the rule of law, women’s and children’s rights, religious freedom and equality.
The International Council of Jurists is a professional association based in Buckingham Palace in London, the United Kingdom. The purpose of the organization is to promote the administration of justice and the expansion of law to meet the social and economic needs of people all around the world. To achieve these goals, the council supports research projects and provides educational seminars and symposia for lawyers and legal workers around the world. Plus, the organization offers legal aid to people who are unable to afford attorneys. Members of the association include individual lawyers, bar associations and legal societies.
The United Nations Office of Legal Affairs is a branch of the United Nations founded February 13, 1946. Operating out of their headquarters in New York City, New York, United States, the office is responsible for providing legal services for the Secretariat of the United Nations and other organs of the UN. Specifically, the office interprets and advises on issues related to international trade law and public law. There are six divisions of the Office of Legal Affairs: the Office of the Legal Counsel (OLC), the General Legal Division (GLD), the Codification Division (COD), the Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea (DOALOS), the International Trade Law Division (ITLD) and the Treaty Section (TREATY).
Avocats Sans Frontières is an international non-governmental organization committed to protecting human rights and promoting responsible development. The organization is headquartered in Brussels, Belgium, and was founded in 1992. More than 130 people work for the organization worldwide. The group conducts field interventions on the ground in areas of conflict and other violations of human rights. In addition, the organization provides access to lawyers, legal advice and justice representation for victims of human rights violations that would otherwise not be able to secure a lawyer. The organization has done work in Burundi, Kosovo, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Timor-Leste, Uganda and Nepal.
The Commission for Environmental Cooperation was established in 1994 by the United States, Mexico and Canada to fulfill the obligations of the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation. Its headquarters is located in Montreal, Canada.
The Court of Justice & Court of First Instance of the European Communities is the supreme court for deciding matters related to European Union Law and is headquartered in Kirchberg, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg.
Founded in 1998, the European Court of Human Rights hears cases related to human rights violations that occur in its 47 member states. The court is located in Strasbourg, France.
The European Free Trade Agreement Court hears cases related to trade disputes in Norway, Liechtenstein and Iceland. Founded in 1994, the court is located in Kirchberg, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg,
Established in 1959 by the Organization of American States, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights hears cases related to human rights and freedoms in member North, Central and South American nations. The court is located in San Jose, Costa Rica.
Overseeing cases from more than 90 member countries, the International Chamber of Commerce International Court of Arbitration is responsible for settling disputes related to trade. The court is based in Paris, France.
The International Court of Justice is the main judicial body of the United Nations and is a panel of 15 judges. Its headquarters in located in The Hague, Netherlands, and the court hears cases from 193 countries.
Since 2002, the International Criminal Court has heard cases related to international crimes against humanity and war crimes. The court is affiliated with the United Nations and is located in The Hauge, Netherlands.
Established in 1994, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda was responsible for trying cases related to the war crimes and genocide that occurred during the Rwandan Civil War. The court is located in Arusha, Tanzania.
Established by the United Nations Security Council in 1993, the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia was responsible for prosecuting individuals guilty of war crimes during the Yugoslav Wars. Its headquarters is in The Hague, Netherlands.
In 1982, the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea was founded to settle disputes related to the use of ocean waters. The court features judges from 21 countries and is located in Hamburg, Germany.
The Permanent Court of Arbitration is an international court that settles legal disagreements between its 121 member states, international organizations and individuals and companies. Established in 1899, the court is based in The Hague, Netherlands.
In 2002, the United Nations established the Special Court for Sierra Leone to prosecute war crimes related to the Sierra Leone Civil War. The court has offices in Freetown, Sierra Leone; The Hague, Netherlands; and New York City, United States.
Since 1994, the World Intellectual Property Organization Arbitration & Mediation Center has helped settle disputes between international private parties that arise from intellectual property claims.
The World Trade Organization Appellate Body hears cases related to trade disputes to promote free and open trade among member nations. Its seat is in Geneva, Switzerland.